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Grade 11 Chemistry: Unit 1: Matter and Chemical Bonding

Bonding

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Web Links: Check here for great Interactive Content!
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Bonding
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Above is a Periodic Table of Elements to help you when doing diagrams.
Here is a webpage to show you animations of the different types of bonds:
 

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Ionic Bonding
 
Ionic bonding is bonding between a metal and a non metal. When writing the formula, you need to write the metal first.  Then, write the non metal. There is a special way to actually show the way to do thing. At this level, you should know how to do Rutherford-Bohr and Lewis diagrams. Write the atoms in the order they appear. Then, write diagrams of each atom with only the valence shell electrons in a ring around the elements. Then, show with an arrow, that how ever many electrons from the metal, are transferring over to the non metal. The compound should have a total charge of 0 as the metal will give up electrons, and the non metal will gain electrons from the metal. We know this from our knowledge of the periodic table and the trends that exist in it. You would write the equation like this:
Ba + O --> Ba(2+)O(2-)
 
Note: There are no brackets around the numbers. That is just to show that the numbers should be superscript. Both atoms will have brackets around them and the non metal will have 8 electron dots around it in the bracket to show it has a stable octet. So, it would look like this:
Ba + O --> [Ba](2+)[O](2-)
 
Remember again that there brackets around the numbers are strictly to let you know that it should be superscript, meaning higher than the base number itself, looking somewhat  like an exponent.
 
This is an electron dot diagram, and the ways in which to complete them correctly.
 
CHECK OUT THIS FLASH ANIMATION HERE TO WATCH THE BONDING OF SODIUM CHLORIDE(TABLE SALT) AND WATER!!!

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Covalent Bonding
 
Covalent is between non metals and non metals. Instead of transferring electrons, the two non metals share electrons in an outer valence shell. For example, look at CH4. Carbon has 4 electrons that participate in covalent bonding. When you draw Lewis Dot diagrams, you draw 1 dot on each sides, for a total of 4 sides, like a square. Once you've made it around all sides, continue until the atom's outer valence has been completed. Here is an example:                      
                                    o      
                                 o C o
                                    o 
 
Note that the little circles represent valence electrons in Carbon's valence shell. Carbon's outer valence is 4. So, it can share each electron with each Hydrogen, to completely bond. If there was a pair of electrons, like this:
                                             oo
                                          o  P o
                                              o 
the pair can't participate in covalent bonding. So, only the three single electrons can covalent bond. The pair is called a lone pair.
 
After going through this step, you must show a diagram with the central atom and lines to each atom it is bonding with.
 
Note: The atom with the highest bonding capacity, in this case Carbon, is written in the middle, and each bonding atom around it, in a certain geometric shape. However, do not be too worried about the geometric shape of the diagram at this point in time.        
 
CHECK OUT THIS INTERACTIVE FLASH IF YOU WANT TO SEE HOW TO BOND!

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